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Mosque Foundation | Bridgeview, Illinois

Mosque Foundation

One Third of the Quran

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One Third of the Quran

Kifah Mustapha

 The Prophet (S) was reported to have said, “How is it that someone fails to read one third of the Quran in one night?!” Those present replied, “And how can one third be read?” The Prophet (S) replied, “{Say; He is Allah, One} is equivalent to one third of the Quran.”[1]Imam Qurtubi comments, “Scholars said it is equivalent to one third of the Quran because of the name Al-Samad, meaning everlasting refuge, and the name, Ahad, meaning One, for they are not mentioned but in this chapter of the Quran. And the Quran was revealed in three (categories); rulings (Ahkam,) promise (of rewards) and threat (in punishment) and names or attributes of Allah. This chapter represents the third category.”[2]

This small chapter of the Quran composed of a single line is great in its meanings and for this reason it was granted the name of Al-Ikhlas, or pure sincerity, because the text refers to Allah and no one else. It was narrated that the Prophet (S) asked about a person who recited this chapter in every rak’at Sahabah why he did so. The Companions replied that it was because of his love of this Surat to which the Prophet (S) said, “Inform him that Allah (S) loves him.”[3] And in another instance when the Prophet (S) heard someone reciting the Surah he said, “It is deserved.” The Sahabah inquired, “What is that deserved? He (S) said, “Heaven.” [4]

On many occasions the Prophet (S) would not answer questions from people and instead waited patiently for revelation to answer their questions. This particular Surah was revealed when the pagans and People of the Book asked Prophet Muhammad (S) about the description of Allah saying, “Relate to us the family line of your lord!”[5]

The nature of their question reveals their limited understanding of the Divine relating Him to human terms. Allah (SWT) challenged this way of thinking and answered them clearly and directly about Himself (SWT).

112:1 {Say: He is Allah. One.}

An order from Allah to his Prophet (S) to deliver to humanity that “Allah” is the name of the Lord, the true One to be worshiped in which all that exists submits to this fact that He is the Lord and He is One. Imam Tabari narrated to Ibn A’bbas, “He is the one that all submit to as Allah and all worship Him alone and He is the Lord over all His creation.”[6]

112:2 {Allah, the Everlasting Refuge.}

He is the One sought in all matters and no one else. Imam Tabari said, “No one is fit to be worshiped but Him.”[7] Imam Qurtubi said: “The one all matters are related to Him.”[8]

112:3 {He does not beget. Nor is He begotten.}

The rules and conditions of the human do not apply to Allah for He is the one who set such rules. The maker cannot be vulnerable to the rules of being made. And when we accept the term {One} by default there will be no place to beget or begotten. Imam Aloosi said, “Being born means to be made of parts and this contradicts the Oneness and the Everlasting Refuge attributes.”[9]

112:4 {And comparable to Him, there is none.}

All that was established in the prior verses leads to the conclusion here; no one is equivalent to Allah. Imam Qutub said, “No one is of a match or equal neither in existence or in ability or in attributes.”[10]

[1] Hadith narrated by Imam Muslim

[2] Al-Jame’

[3] Hadith narrated by Bukhari

[4] Hadith narrated by Nasaie

[5] Al-Tareekh Al-Awsat by Bukhari and the Hadith is weak.

[6] Jame’ Al-Bayan

[7] Jame’ Al-Bayan

[8] Al-Jame’

[9] Rooh El-Ma’ani

[10] Fee Zilal Al-Quran

Sh. Kifah Mustapha